Author Guidelines

Author guidelines – Wildlife Biology


To make the submission process easier, we differentiate between initial and revised submissions. Initial submissions can be in any file format providing they adhere to the following requirements:

  • Single column, double line spaced, with page- and line-numbers.
  • The manuscript should contain: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Declarations, References, Figures and Tables with captions.
  • Make sure that no author information is present in the manuscript file, since we are using double-blind peer review. Upload a specific title-page with title, author information, abstract and key-words, which will not be included in the review process. If parts of Declarations contain author information, this part should be moved from the manuscript to the extra Title Page.
  • Make sure all references are complete and correct. Also make sure all references cited in the text are listed in the reference list and vice versa!
  • Check the PDF generated by S1M that equations and text and that all files are correct and complete before submission.

Types of papers

Articles – Articles must have a theoretical – conceptual basis, clearly stated objectives and research questions and/or hypotheses, and provide insights with relevance for the understanding of wildlife ecology and/or wildlife management that reach beyond the study area and study system.

Articles published in Wildlife Biology comprise research papers (reporting the results of original research), reviews, and management papers. Research articles must have a theoretical –conceptual basis, clearly stated objectives and research questions, and provide insights with relevance for the understanding of wildlife ecology or the improvement of wildlife management and conservation. Reviews can either be narrative or quantitative and must include a methods section explaining the rationale and process of literature selection and analysis used; systematic reviews are preferred. Management papers promote the dissemination of information about management problems or systems, and scientific evaluations of the effects of management actions; they can have the structure of a research paper or of a review paper.

Articles should aim for ca 40 000 characters or less including tables, figures and legends. However, if justified, articles may be longer than that.

Communications - A forum for short scientific entities dealing with e.g. methodological problems or by-products of larger research projects and for promoting discussions among and between scientists and other professionals based on existing information. Thus new ideas, comments and criticism on earlier papers are welcome. Structure and style should be the same as in articles. Communications  should not exceed 28 000 characters including tables, figures and legends. Analyses are included either of the literature or of the evidence reported within studies.  Novelty, future research and analysis of gaps are strongly encouraged versus summary. Transparent reporting of the synthesis process is required.

Initial submission

All manuscripts must be submitted at
You are welcome to submit your manuscript in any technical format. High-resolution files are not required for initial submission.

You will receive a receipt with a manuscript ID. Please refer to this ID in all correspondence with the Editorial Office.

Revised submission

When submitting a revised manuscript, authors must provide publication-ready source files. The main manuscript file should be provided as word processor files (e.g. .doc, .docx, .odt, .rtf) with high resolution figures submitted as separate files. At this time, we require you follow carefully our instructions on formatting. Guidelines for submitting source files appear below. The text file should include tables and figure legends. Figures and Appendices with supplementary material should be uploaded separately. The text file should include track-changes and you may upload an additional “clean version” without track-changes, as “additional file for review but not for publication”.


Manuscripts should be in British or American English. Be consistent throughout the manuscript. Linguistic usage should be correct. Avoid the use of the passive voice. Avoid extensive reviews in the Introduction and Discussion. Cite only essential sources of a theory or opinion. 


The title should be concise, informative and comprehensible to a broad scientific audience. Where possible, it should be a statement of the main result or conclusion presented in the manuscript. When formulating a title you should bear in mind both human readers and search engines. Including keywords in your title, for example, can help readers discover your article online. Do not include specialist abbreviations or authorities for taxonomic names in your title. The title should be brief and contain words useful for indexing and information retrieval. 


The first page should contain only the title and the author's name, Orcid ORCiD IDs (check carefully), address, and email-address. Orcid ORCiD id ( is mandatory for the corresponding author, and strongly recommended for additional authors[Office4] . Page two contains the abstract, in which the main results of the work should be summarised. The abstract should contain less than 300 words. Begin the introduction on page three. Avoid right margin justification and hyphenation. Double-check the contents of your manuscript before submitting. Add page- and line-numbers to the text.


Use SI units as far as possible. 


Binomial Latin names should be used in accordance with International Rules of Nomenclature . 


This includes acknowledging persons (authors or not) who have contributed to this paper. Here you can also state any monetary funding you have received or permits you have been granted. See example below.

  • Acknowledgements – Thanks to Joe Smith for help with the statistics and to Lisa Smith for drawing Figure 1.
  • Funding – This study was funded by The International Fund for Ecological Research, grant no. 00543.
  • Author contributions – The first and second author contributed equally to this paper.
  • Conflicts of interest – John Smith is employed by Ciba-Geigy.
  • Permit(s) – Permission to handle our study animals was given by the International Society of Mammalogists, no. 000010004. Landowners Patricia and John Smith have kindly given their permission to work on their land.



References must follow the style of the journal. Titles of journals should be abbreviated. Check previous issues of the journal. If in doubt, give the title in full. Do not refer to unpublished material or personal communications. [M6] [Office7] Check that all references in the text are listed in the list of references and that all references listed are cited in the text.

In the main text
References should be listed chronologically: (Smith 1999, Dunn 2000, Nilsson et al. 2017). Do not use semi-colons as separators for the references.

Reference list
The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on authors' names and chronologically per author. If the author's name is also mentioned with co-authors the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged chronologically - publications of the same author with one co-author, arranged chronologically – publications of the author with more than one co-author, arranged chronologically.

Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 2004a, 2004b, etc.
All references must be complete, containing author names, year of publication, title, journal title using standard abbreviation, volume, first and last page numbers or article number. For references to in-press articles include a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number.
Reference lists not conforming to this format will be returned for revision.

In the list of references (double-spaced), the following usage should be conformed to:

Journal article
Haila, Y. and Järvinen, O. 1983. Land bird communities on a Finnish island: species impoverishment and abundance patterns. – Oikos 41: 255-273.

Atkinson, C. T. and Samuel, M. D. 2010. Avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in native Hawaiian forest birds: epizootiology and demographic impacts on apapane Himatione sanguinea. – J. Avian Biol. 41: 357–366.

If more than two authors:
Lindsay, A. et al. 2000. Are plant populations seed-limited? A review of seed sowing experiments. – Oikos 88: 225–238.

Mayr, E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. –- Harvard Univ. Press.

Goodall, D. W. 1972. Building and testing ecosystem models. – In: Jeffers, J. N. R. (ed.), Mathematical models in ecology. Blackwell, pp. 173–194. 


Tables and legends of illustrations should be written double-spaced on separate sheets. Do not incorporate the legend in the figure itself. Tables and illustration legends should be comprehensible without reference to the text. Do not use italic lettering. 

Our preferred files are vector-images e.g. as: .eps or .pdf

Rasterised (pixelated) files are also welcome but have to follow the specifications below. Can be submitted as: .tif, .jpeg, .pdf and other formats.

All images (but vector-files) must be supplied at 300–600 dpi (print resolution), not 72 dpi (screen resolution). The 300–600 dpi resolution must be generated in the application used to create the image and at approximately the correct size. If your system cannot produce variable output resolutions, the image should be created at a larger size so that the effective resolution is increased when the image is scaled down by us.

Width: 8 cm (single-column), 12.5 cm (1.5 column) or 16.6 cm (double-column).

The quality of a low-resolution figure cannot be improved by simply increasing the resolution in graphics software. To improve the resolution of your figure, you must re-create the figure from the beginning.

Resolution below 300 dpi results in blurred, jagged or pixelated published figures.

The quality of your figures is only as good as the lowest-resolution element placed in them. If you created a 72 dpi line graph and placed it in a 300 dpi .tif, the graph will look blurred, jagged, or pixelated.

On figures, use only common sans-serif fonts, such as Geneva, Helvetica, or Arial. Letters, numbers and symbols must appear clearly but not oversized.

Be consistent throughout the figure with colours, line weights and styles. Panels within the figure should be designated with lower case letters in parentheses (e.g. (a), (b), (c).

You cannot submit individual image-files with a size > 50MB.

Colour figures are most welcome and will be published free of charge.



Supplementary material, i.e. images, tables, data or source code that are not part of the manuscript, can be uploaded and published as supporting information on the journal website. This material will not be edited, but published as received. Keep in mind to deposit key data for your paper in public repositories like e.g. Data Dryad (


Please note the following:

  • There is no cost for publishing supporting information
  • Supporting information will not be edited, checked or controlled at all by the journal.
  • You will not be able to change/add/update or delete the supporting information once it has been published
  • You do not have to publish any supporting information.
  • We reserve the right to decline publishing supporting information with inappropriate/offensive/unethical or misleading content
  • Refer to the supporting information as “Supporting information” in the main text of the manuscript.
  • Do not refer to subsections or specific details in the supporting information file(s). Any reference of that kind will be removed.
  • Submit supporting information as separate file(s) and not as part of the main text.

Our publication policies

Our detailed publication policies can be found in the NSO|OEO Editorial and Publishing policies file []. Our compiled policies cover various topics like conflict of interest, authorship, roles of editors, copyright and license policies.

We will follow recommendations by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

Short summaries of our policies for key issues can be found below. Download the complete set of policies here:

Submitting a paper

Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that the work has not been published before, is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has been read and approved by all authors. Manuscripts submitted to Wildlife Biology will be checked using anti-plagiarism software provided by iThenticate.

Manuscripts are submitted to reviewers for evaluation of their significance and soundness. Authors will generally be notified of acceptance, rejection, or need for revision within two months. Decisions of the editor are final. 

Statement on authorship

Manuscripts should conform to recommendations for authorship provided by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (the Vancouver Group; see That is, authorship of a paper carries with it responsibility as well as credit. All those whose names appear as authors should have played a significant role in designing or carrying out the research, writing the manuscript, or providing extensive guidance to the execution of the project. They should be able to present and defend the work in a public forum. Honorary authorship is to be avoided. All authors must agree on both the submission and full content of any article carrying their name. Any violation of these conditions may represents academic misconduct and will be dealt with accordingly. 

Corresponding author

Please make sure you have correctly selected the corresponding author, as it is stated on the manuscript. We strongly recommend that an ORCiID ID is given for the corresponding author and preferentially for co-authors.

We accept one corresponding author only.

Conflicts of interests

At submission, you are requested to declare any conflict of interest.


Wildlife Biology assumes authors of a paper have acquired any permits needed planning and executing the study reported in the paper.

Permits given shall be listed under “Declarations”

Data policy/repositories

Data archiving and registration of sequences – Wildlife Biology recommends authors to deposit the data supporting the results in the paper in an appropriate publically accessible archive, such as e.g. Dryad (, TreeBase, figshare, or other archive that guarantees preservation and accessas well as a permanent identifier of the data (such as e.g. DOI-number or GenBank accession number) for access. The permanent DOI-number from the archive identifier should be provided by the authors or the archive, after acceptance of the paper. Data should normally be made publicly available at the time of publication, but may be postponed for up to one year if the technology of the  archive allows for it. Longer embargoes may be granted in exceptional cases after correspondence with the Editorial Office of Oikos.  Derived, summary data may also be archived. DNA sequences published in Wildlife Biology should be deposited in the EMBL/GenBank/DDJB Nucleotide Sequence Databases. An accession number for each sequence must be included in the manuscript.


If a conservation intervention was tested, provide at least a sentence summarizing the evidence related to the intervention in the introduction. If there is no previously published evidence, please state that. A good place to check for existing evidence relating to conservation interventions is the database found at

How to cite data in a manuscript

Data should be cited both in the text and in the BibliographyReferences. When referencing data in the text put this as the last part of material and methods:

Data available from the Dryad Digital Repository:  Bergeron et al. 2017

In the BibliographyReferences:

Bergeron JAC, Pinzon J, Odsen S, Bartels S, Ellen Macdonald S, Spence JR (2017) Data from: Ecosystem memory of wildfires affects resilience of boreal mixedwood biodiversity after retention harvest. Oikos  

 If several data sources are used cite these as 2011a, 2011b etc.


If funding has been received for the study, it shall be listed under “Declaration” in the manuscript and have to be listed during the submission.


Manuscripts that have been posted in a recognized preprint archive (such as arXiv and PeerJ PrePrints), can be considered for publication, providing that upon acceptance of the article, the authors are still able to grant Wildlife Biology an exclusive license to publish the article, or agree to the terms of an OnlineOpen agreement and pay the associated fee.

If the manuscript is accepted for publication in Wildlife Biology, the authors are required to provide a link to the final manuscript alongside the original preprint version.

What happens next – after acceptance

Production information/flow

The decision to accept your manuscript for publication will be communicated by the EiC through email.

Manuscripts are edited to improve communication between author and reader. During this process, we may contact the corresponding author to request additional information.

Authors will receive electronic proofs, correct only printer's mistakes.

No offprints will be supplied. Instead corresponding authors will receive a locked PDF file to the use at their discretion. 


Licenses and OA

Wildlife Biology is an Open Access journal. The full content of the journal is accessible for everyone without any charge. In order to cover the costs for the production of the journal we need to charge the corresponding author an Article processing charge. The current fee is 700 Euros. Read more about the fee and potential waivers here:

This work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the journal. Posting an article on the author’s personal website or in an institutional repository is not viewed as prior publication and such articles can therefore be submitted. The articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the journal.

Wildlife Biology is published under a CC-BY license and is immediately available for anyone free of charge. The author (or the author’s employer) retains the copyright of the article. You can read more about the CC-BY license here:

Publishing your work as Open access will increase the number of readers and make the published results more widely spread.


Promoting your paper on Social Media

Our journals are visible on several Social Media channels.

Authors to of accepted papers are encouraged to make contributions to blogs, Twitter, Facebook, in form of photos, a popular summary of the study and/or a short video.


We encourage you to contribute to Twitter/Facebook, please send an email to the Managing Editor with a short text (max 140 characters) and a few pictures of for e.g. your study organism, from the field or a good image from your paper. Make sure to include your Twitter-handle if you are active on Twitter. You are welcome to submit infographics. All these will help to promote your paper.

Blog posts

We encourage you to write a blog post, please send an email to the Managing Editor with popular scientific text along with some nice pictures of e.g. your study organism, or from the field or a good image from your paper, or any other relevant image that will attract attention to your paper. Please see examples here:

Blog posts are shared on both Twitter and Facebook.

Video abstract

We welcome video abstracts for promotion of your paper is social media.

Questions and enquiries

The Managing Editor will provide answers to any questions you might have. Send an email to: <me [at] wildlifebiology [dot] org>.