Author Guidelines

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Author Guidelines

Article categories

Articles must have a theoretical - conceptual basis, clearly stated objectives and research questions and/or hypotheses, and provide insights with relevance for the understanding of wildlife ecology and/or the improvement of wildlife management that reach beyond the study area and study system.

Articles published in Wildlife Biology comprise research papers (reporting the results of original research), reviews, and management papers. Reviews can either be narrative or quantitative and must include a methods section explaining the rationale and process of literature selection used; systematic reviews are preferred. Management papers promote the dissemination of information about management problems or systems, and scientific evaluations of the effects of management actions; they can have the structure of a research paper or of a review paper.

Articles should not exceed 40 000 characters, including tables, figures and legends.

A forum for short scientific entities dealing with e.g. methodological problems or by-products of larger research projects and for promoting discussions among and between scientists and other professionals based on existing information. Thus new ideas, comments and criticism on earlier papers are welcome. Structure and style should be the same as in articles. Communications  should not exceed 28,000 characters including tables, figures and legends


Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that the work has not been published before, is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has been read and approved by all authors.

iThenticateBefore review, all manuscripts submitted to Wildlife Biology is checked with the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text. To find out more about iThenticate and CrossCheck visit

After submitting your manuscript you will receive a receipt with a tracking number. Please refer to this number in all correspondence with the Editorial Office.

Guidelines for manuscript preparation

Manuscripts must be written in English. All text, including tables, figure captions and reference list should be double spaced, with line and page numbers. Manuscripts should follow The Chicago Manual of Style and The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.


Manuscripts can only be submitted online at: and should preferably be submitted as separate text and figure files. Preferred file formats for the main document, including tables and figure legends is .doc or .docx. Pdf-files are accepted during the review process but a .doc file is required should the manuscript be accepted. Preferred formats for figure files are: .eps .tif or high-resolution .jpeg

Please avoid submitting LaTex files.

Language. Manuscripts should be in English. Linguistic usage should be correct. Avoid the use of the passive voice. Avoid extensive reviews in the Introduction and Discussion. Cite only essential sources of a theory or opinion. 

Title. The title should be brief and contain words useful for indexing and information retrieval. 

Text. The first page should contain only the title and the author's name, address, fax and email-address. Page two contains the abstract, in which the main results of the work should be summarized. The abstract should not contain more than 300 words. Begin the introduction on page three. Avoid right margin justification and hyphenation. Double-check the contents of your manuscript before submitting. Only printer' mistakes in proofs will be changed free of charge. 

Illustrations. Tables and legends of illustrations should be written double spaced on separate pages. Do not incorporate the legend in the figure itself. Tables and illustrations should be comprehensible without reference to the text. Do not use italic lettering.

Please submit figures as separate TIFF files or non-rasterised EPS files if possible. JPEG and PDF files is acceptable if they are of high resolution, make sure too zoom in to confirm this. Detailed information on digital illustration standards can be found at 

Figures should be planned to appear with a maximum final width of 8 cm (single-column), 12.5 cm (1.5 column) or 16.6 cm (double-column). The font used in figures should be either Helvetica or Arial. Letters, numbers and symbols must appear clearly but not oversized. A suitable final size for lettering is 1-2 mm at reproduction size. One uniform size throughout is generally recommended. Avoid complicated symbols or patterns. Use open and closed circles, squares and triangles; open, striped and closed bars in histograms. Each figure should be boxed in and scale marks (turning inwards) provided. Lines should be clear, but not thick and heavy. Plan your illustrations for the smallest size possible (one column). Be sure that the lettering is clear and readable, even if the figure is de-sized. If your files do not follow these guidelines your paper will be returned to you.

Tables. Should be included at separate pages and double-spaced.


Titles of journals should be abbreviated following Biological Abstracts. If in doubt, give the title in full. Do not refer to unpublished material. 

The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on authors' names and chronologically per author. If the author's name is also mentioned with co-authors the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged chronologically - publications of the same author with one co-author, arranged chronologically - publications of the author with more than one co-author, arranged chronologically. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year shoul be listed as 2004a, 2004b, etc. Reference lists not conforming to this format will be returned for revision. 

In the list of references (double-spaced), the following usage should be conformed to:

Haila, Y. and Järvinen, O. 1983. Land bird communities on a Finnish island: species impoverishment and abundance patterns. - Oikos 41: 255-273.

Atkinson, C. T. and Samuel, M. D. 2010. Avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in native Hawaiian forest birds: epizootiology and demographic impacts on ‘apapane Himatione sanguinea. – J. Avian Biol. 41: 357–366.

If more than two authors:
Lindsay, A. et al. 2000. Are plant populations seed-limited? A review of seed sowing experiments. – Oikos 88: 225–238.

Mayr, E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. - Harvard Univ. Press.

Goodall, D. W. 1972. Building and testing ecosystem models. - In: Jeffers, J. N. R. (ed.), Mathematical models in ecology. Blackwell, pp. 173-194. 
In the text references are given: Mayr (1963) or, at the end of a sentence, (Mayr 1963). 

Appendices: Supplementary material may be posted as electronic appendices on the journal's appendix site.

Supplementary material must follow the guidelines given here:

After acceptance

Average time from acceptance to online publication is around 1.5 months.


Wildlife Biology is published under a CC-BY license and is immediately available for anyone free of charge. The author (or the author’s employer) retains the copyright of the article. You can read more about the CC-BY license here:

Publishing your work as Open access will increase the number of readers and make the published results more widely spread.